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Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses both circulated in Europe in October 2018-January 2019. Interim results from six studies indicate that 2018/19 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates among all ages in primary care was 32-43% against influenza A; higher against A(H1N1)pdm09 and lower against A(H3N2). Among hospitalised older adults, VE estimates were 34-38% against influenza A and slightly lower against A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza vaccination is of continued benefit during the ongoing 2018/19 influenza season.

Original publication




Journal article


Euro Surveill

Publication Date





Europe, influenza, multicentre study, test-negative design, vaccination, vaccine effectiveness, vaccines and immunisation, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Case-Control Studies, Child, Europe, Female, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype, Influenza B virus, Influenza Vaccines, Influenza, Human, Male, Middle Aged, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Population Surveillance, Primary Health Care, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Seasons, Sensitivity and Specificity, Vaccination, Vaccine Potency